Genome-wide association studies of net form of net blotch resistance at seedling and adult plant stages in spring barley collection
Net form of net blotch (NFNB) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt) Drechsler (anamorph: Drechslera teres [Sacc.] Shoem.), is considered one of the major constraints of successful barley production in major barley growing regions of the world. Resistance to NFNB was evaluated in a barley collection of 336 genotypes (AM2014), at seedling stage using isolates LGDPtt.19 and TD10 in the USA, and adult stage in seven hotspot environments in Morocco. The AM-2014 panel was genotyped with 9K SNP markers and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were carried out using mixed linear model (MLM: Q+K) accounting for population structure (Q) and kinship (K) as covariates. Significant (P<0.001) marker trait associations were corrected for false discovery rate (FDR) at the q< 0.05. Four genotypes showed an average infection response (IRs≤2) to both isolates, LGDPttt.19 and TD10, at the seedling stage, and 30 genotypes showed resistance in all environments in the field while three genotypes exhibited the highest resistance at both stages.The GWAS of NFNB identified 31 distinct QTLs on all seven barley chromosomes, of which 8 with resistance at seedling stage, 21 were associated with resistance at the adult stage, and two QTLs, QRptt.2H-132.15 and QPtt.6H-54-55, conferred resistance at both stages. Of 31 resistance QTLs reported in this study, 10 QTLs coincided with previously mapped QTL while 21 are novel, thereby validating the GWAS approach used in this study.The resistance sources identified in AM-2014 and QTL mapped in this study are valuable resources for marker-assisted breeding for NFNB resistance in the future.