Genetic diversity and recombination between turnip yellows virus strains in Australia
Disease outbreaks caused by turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae, regularly occur in canola and pulse crops throughout Australia. To understand the genetic diversity of TuYV for resistance breeding and management, genome sequences of 28 TuYV isolates from different hosts and locations were determined using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). We aimed to identify the parts of the genome that were most variable and clarify the taxonomy of viruses related to TuYV. Poleroviruses contain seven open reading frames (ORFs): ORF 0–2, 3a, and 3–5. Phylogenetic analysis based on the genome sequences, including isolates of TuYV and brassica yellows virus (BrYV) from the GenBank database, showed that most genetic variation among isolates occurred in ORF 5, followed by ORF 0 and ORF 3a. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF 5 revealed three TuYV groups; P5 group 1 and group 3 shared 45–49% amino acid sequence identity, and group 2 is a recombinant between the other two. Phylogenomic analysis of the concatenated ORFs showed that TuYV is paraphyletic with respect to BrYV, and together these taxa form a well-supported monophyletic group. Our results support the hypothesis that TuYV and BrYV belong to the same species and that the phylogenetic topologies of ORF 0, 3a and 5 are incongruent and may not be informative for species demarcation. A number of beet western yellow virus (BWYV)- and TuYV-associated RNAs (aRNA) were also identified by HTS for the first time in Australia.